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Table 5 Diverse synthesis routes for silica–CD nanoparticles and biosensing applications

From: A Brief Review of Carbon Dots–Silica Nanoparticles Synthesis and their Potential Use as Biosensing and Theragnostic Applications

CD synthesis method Synthesis method for silica–carbon nanoparticles Biosensing/theragnostic Refs.
Organosilane pyrolysis Organosilane pyrolysis Vanadium(V) detection [166]
One-pot solvothermal One-pot solvothermal Fe3 + detection and cancer/normal cell differentiation [167]
Organosilane pyrolysis Stöber/molecularly imprinted silica Sensing of rhodamine 6G [168]
Microwave irradiation Reverse microemulsion Photocatalyst for highly selective solar fuel production from CO2 [169]
One-pot copolycondensation/solgel One-pot copolycondensation/solgel Temperature sensing and cell labeling [170]
Hydrothermal Solgel Cu2 + ion detection [171]
Organosilane pyrolysis Solgel Nitride sensing in food [172]
One-step hydrothermal method Solgel/molecularly imprinted silica Anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib detection [173]