Skip to main content


Guided self-assembly of lateral InAs/GaAs quantum-dot molecules for single molecule spectroscopy

Article metrics


We report on the growth and characterization of lateral InAs/GaAs (001) quantum-dot molecules (QDMs) suitable for single QDM optical spectroscopy. The QDMs, forming by depositing InAs on GaAs surfaces with self-assembled nanoholes, are aligned along the [] direction. The relative number of isolated single quantum dots (QDs) is substantially reduced by performing the growth on GaAs surfaces containing stepped mounds. Surface morphology and X-ray measurements suggest that the strain produced by InGaAs-filled nanoholes superimposed to the strain relaxation at the step edges are responsible for the improved QDM properties. QDMs are Ga-richer compared to single QDs, consistent with strain- enhanced intermixing. The high optical quality of single QDMs is probed by micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy in samples with QDM densities lower than 108 cm−2.



  1. 1.

    Reina JH, Quiroga L, Johnson NF: Phys. Rev. A. 2000, 62: 012305. 10.1103/PhysRevA.62.012305

  2. 2.

    Burkard G, Loss D: Phys. Rev. B. 1999, 59: 2070. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXkt12rug%3D%3D] 10.1103/PhysRevB.59.2070

  3. 3.

    Shtrichman I, Metzner C, Gerardot BD, Schoenfeld WV, Petroff PM: Phys. Rev. B. 2002, 65: 081303. 10.1103/PhysRevB.65.081303

  4. 4.

    Krenner HJ, Sabathil M, Clark EC, Kress A, Schuh D, Bichler M, Abstreiter G, Finley JJ: Phys. Rev. Lett.. 2005, 94: 057402. COI number [1:STN:280:DC%2BD2M7ls1Oitw%3D%3D] 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.057402

  5. 5.

    Gerardot BD, Strauf S, de Dood MJA, Bychkov AM, Badolato A, Hennessy K, Hu EL, Bouwmeester D, Petroff PM: Phys. Rev. Lett.. 2005, 95: 137403. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.137403

  6. 6.

    Stinaff EA, Scheibner M, Bracker AS, Ponomarev IV, Korenev VL, Ware ME, Doty MF, Reinecke TL, Gammon D: Science. 2006, 311: 636. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XptVykug%3D%3D] 10.1126/science.1121189

  7. 7.

    Unold T, Mueller K, Lienau Ch, Elsaesser T, Wieck AD: Phys. Rev. Lett.. 2005, 94: 137404. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.137404

  8. 8.

    Songmuang R, Kiravittaya S, Schmidt OG: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2003, 82: 2892. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXjtlSisrw%3D] 10.1063/1.1569992

  9. 9.

    Lippen Tv, Nötzel R, Hamhuis GJ, Wolter JH: J. Appl. Phys.. 2005, 97: 044301. 10.1063/1.1840098

  10. 10.

    Schmidt OG, Deneke Ch, Kiravittaya S, Songmuang R, Heidemeyer H, Nakamura Y, Zapf-Gottwick R, Müller C, Jin-Phillipp NY: IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron.. 2002, 8: 1025. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XpsVOgtb0%3D] 10.1109/JSTQE.2002.804235

  11. 11.

    Kiravittaya S, Songmuang R, Jin-Phillipp NY, Panyakeow S, Schmidt OG: J. Cryst. Growth. 2003, 251: 258. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXitlWls7g%3D] 10.1016/S0022-0248(02)02475-2

  12. 12.

    Krause B, Metzger TH, Rastelli A, Songmuang R, Kiravittaya S, Schmidt OG: Phys. Rev. B. 2005, 72: 085339. 10.1103/PhysRevB.72.085339

  13. 13.

    Schuler H, Kaneko T, Lipinski M, Eberl K: Semicond. Sci. Technol.. 2000, 15: 169. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXhtlSjs70%3D] 10.1088/0268-1242/15/2/316

  14. 14.

    Rastelli A, Ulrich SM, Pavelescu E-M, Leinonen T, Pessa M, Michler P, Schmidt OG: Superlatt. Microstruct.. 2004, 36: 181. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXpsVKhsb8%3D] 10.1016/j.spmi.2004.08.024

  15. 15.

    L. Wang, A. Rastelli, O.G. Schmidt, J. Appl. Phys. (in press)

  16. 16.

    A. Rastelli, S. Kiravittaya, L. Wang, C. Bauer, O.G. Schmidt, Physica E 32, 29 (2006)

  17. 17.

    Cho SO, Wang ZhM, Salamo GJ: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2005, 86: 113106. 10.1063/1.1883709

  18. 18.

    Placidi E, Arciprete F, Sessi V, Fanfoni M, Patella F, Balzarotti A: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2005, 86: 241913. 10.1063/1.1946181

  19. 19.

    Lita B, Goldmana RS, Phillips JD, Bhattacharya PK: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1999, 75: 2797. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXmslOgtrY%3D] 10.1063/1.125153

  20. 20.

    Schmidt OG, Eberl K: Phys. Rev. B. 2000, 61: 13721. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXjs1Smt7k%3D] 10.1103/PhysRevB.61.13721

  21. 21.

    Biasiol G, Kapon E: Phys. Rev. Lett.. 1998, 81: 2962. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXmsFyit7g%3D] 10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.2962

  22. 22.

    Kiravittaya S, Heidemeyer H, Schmidt OG: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2005, 86: 263113. 10.1063/1.1954874

  23. 23.

    Garcia JM, Mankad T, Holtz PO, Wellman PJ, Petroff PM: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1998, 72: 3172. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXjsFCktrk%3D] 10.1063/1.121583

  24. 24.

    Beirne GJ, Hermannstädter C, Wang L, Rastelli A, Schmidt OG, Michler P: Phys. Rev. Lett.. 2006, 96: 137401. COI number [1:STN:280:DC%2BD283osFSmsQ%3D%3D] 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.137401

Download references


This work was financially supported by SFB/TR21 and BMBF (03N8711).

Author information

Correspondence to A. Rastelli.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article


  • Lateral quantum-dot molecules
  • Quantum dots
  • Quantum dot composition
  • Self-assembled growth