- Nano Express
- Open Access
Synthesis of Porous NiO and ZnO Submicro- and Nanofibers from Electrospun Polymer Fiber Templates
© to the authors 2008
- Received: 17 July 2008
- Accepted: 11 November 2008
- Published: 16 December 2008
Porous nickel oxide (NiO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) submicro- and nanofibers were synthesized by impregnating electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber templates with corresponding metal nitrate aqueous solutions and subsequent calcination. The diameter of the NiO and ZnO fibers was closely related to that of the template fibers and larger diameters were obtained when using the template fibers with larger diameter. SEM results showed that the NiO and ZnO fibers have a large amount of pores with diameters ranging from 5 nm to 20 nm and 50 nm to 100 nm, respectively. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns testified that the obtained materials were NiO and ZnO with high purity.
- Nickel oxide
- Zinc oxide
- Porous material
Porous materials with high specific surface area (SSA) are highly required for applications in catalysis, supercapacitors, electromechanical actuators, and bio- and environmental engineering [1–4]. Nanomaterials in the dimension range of 1 to 100 nm have received considerable interest because of the unique properties different from their bulk counterparts. Porous nanomaterials have attracted much attention in recent years due to their hierarchical nanostructures [5–9].
Nickel oxide (NiO) is an important material extensively used in catalysis, battery cathodes, gas sensors, electrochromic films, magnetic materials, and photovoltaic device [10–15]. Improvement of the SSA of NiO nanomaterials can greatly enhance their applications especially for catalysts and supercapacitors [16–18]. Another oxide material studied here is zinc oxide (ZnO), which is a metal oxide semiconductor with wide bandgap of 3.37 eV and high exciton binding energy of 60 meV, and it possesses unique optical, acoustical, and electronic properties that stimulate wide research interest in blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs), field-effect transistors (FET), ultraviolet laser diodes (LD), chemical sensors, acousto-electrical devices, catalysts, and dye-sensitized solar cells [19–22]. Increase of the SSA of ZnO nanomaterials benefits the improvement of its optical property  and sensing response , etc.
In this work, we developed a novel approach to synthesize porous NiO and ZnO submicro- and nanofibers by impregnating electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber templates with corresponding nitrates aqueous solution and subsequent calcination. This method is very simple and possibly applicable for preparing porous submicro- and nanofibers of other metal oxide materials.
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN,Mw = 150,000) purchased from Aldrich was used to prepare the fiber templates. The electrospinning solutions were prepared by dissolving PAN in dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent at the mass concentration of 11 and 14%. The electrospinning process was carried out at the voltage of 20 kV, where aluminum foils were used as the collectors. The collected PAN fibers were pretreated at 250 °C for 2 h in air for stabilization. About 50 mg stabilized PAN fiber templates were impregnated with 10 mL Ni(NO3)2or Zn(NO3)2aqueous solution at desired concentrations. Then the samples were impregnated with 10 mL 0.1 M ammonia solution. After drying in air, the samples were heated from room temperature to 700 °C in air at a heating rate of 10 K/min and maintained for 1 h in air.
X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern was recorded with a XD–2 diffractometer (Beijing Purkinje General Instrument Co., Ltd.) to identify the phase of the samples. The morphological features of the samples were characterized with a HITACHI S-4700 scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their components were determined by an energy dispersion X-ray spectroscope (EDX) (EDAX company) equipped in the SEM system.
Many literatures reported that the products with tubular structures could be obtained when calcinating the polymer fiber templates coated with a shell layer of inorganic precursors [28, 29]. However, some researchers also pointed out that the shell layer of the inorganic precursors would shrink or collapse if the process of removing the templates could not be well controlled . The phenomenon of shrinkage of the shell layers without forming tubular structures provides us a simple and easy approach to fabricate fibrous materials. The reason for the formation of the NiO and ZnO fibers rather than tubes mainly lies in that the precursor NiO and ZnO shell layers coated on the surface of the PAN template fibers shrink accompanying with the removal of the PAN fibers maybe driven by external pressure and the cohesion between the nanoparticles. To promote the shrinkage of the shell layers, low concentration of nitrate precursor solution and high temperature heating rate were adopted. The adoption of low concentration of precursor solution results in the small thickness of the coating layer and thus low self-supporting strength. In this case the shell layers are prone to shrink under external pressure during removal of the core templates. The adoption of high heating rate of 10 K/min results in rapid oxidation of the PAN fiber templates and release of a large amount of gases during short time, which generates certain pressure difference between the exterior and interior of the fibers. If this pressure difference is higher than the critical pressure beyond which the shell loses its stability, the shell layer would shrink , and thus products with solid structure are obtained.
The PAN fiber templates were removed through decomposition, carbonization, and oxidation due to reaction with O2 in air , which generated a large amount of gas products. The release of these gases from the core of the impregnated fibers to the outside could produce a large number of pores in the residual materials [33, 34]. Although using the same amount of nickel nitrate and zinc nitrate precursors, the NiO fibers have much smaller diameter than the ZnO fibers (Fig. 2), strongly suggesting that the structure of the ZnO fibers is less compact. This is in agreement with the observation that the pore size of ZnO fibers is larger. Furthermore, the more porous structure of ZnO fibers results in their poorer mechanical strength, and thus the ZnO fibers are prone to break. Therefore, it is vital to carefully control the procedure of removing the polymer fiber templates for fabricating long, continuous, and porous metal oxide submicro- and nanofibers.
In conclusion, porous NiO and ZnO submicro- and nanofibers were prepared by using electrospun polyacrylonitrile fibers as templates. The products were obtained by impregnating the electrospun fibrous webs with nickel and zinc nitrate aqueous solution followed by calcination in air. The diameter of the NiO and ZnO fibers is strongly dependant on that of the template fibers and tends to be larger when using the templates with larger diameter. SEM showed that the NiO and ZnO fibers have many pores with diameter in the ranges of 5 to 20 nm and 50 to 100 nm, respectively. The EDX and XRD results testified that the obtained products are NiO and ZnO with high purity. We expect that the procedure of removing the polymer template fibers play key roles in the structure formation of the products. This method is very simple and possibly applicable for preparing porous submicro- and nanofibers of other oxide materials.
This work was supported by the NSFC (Grant No. 50572019), Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET), SRF for ROCS, SEM, and S&T Program of Shenzhen government.
- Kameoka S, Tsai AP: Catal. Lett.. 2008, 121: 337. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhsFyns7w%3D] 10.1007/s10562-007-9344-xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Patake VD, Lokhande CD: Appl. Surf. Sci.. 2008, 254: 2820. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhsleitLY%3D]; Bibcode number [2008ApSS..254.2820P] 10.1016/j.apsusc.2007.10.044View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang ST, Zhang YG, Wang WZ, Li GL, Ma XC, Li XB, Zhang ZD, Qian YT: J. Cryst. Growth. 2006, 290: 96. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XisFyitr4%3D]; Bibcode number [2006JCrGr.290...96W] 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2005.10.149View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang Y, Jiang X, Xia Y: J. Am. Chem. Soc.. 2003, 125: 16176. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXpsFOkur8%3D] 10.1021/ja037743fView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Du N, Zhang H, Chen BD, Wu JB, Ma XY, Liu ZH, Zhang YQ, Yang DR, Huang XH, Tu JP: Adv. Mater.. 2007, 19: 4505. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhtVWmsr0%3D] 10.1002/adma.200602513View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Patel AC, Li SX, Yuan JM, Wei Y: Nano Lett.. 2006, 6: 1042. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XjsFOitbw%3D] 10.1021/nl0604560View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pérez-Cabero M, García-García FR, VieD, Rodríguez-Ramos I, Beltrán D, Amorós P: Mater. Lett.. 2008, 62: 2935. 10.1016/j.matlet.2008.01.079View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ding DY, Chen Z, Lu C: Sens. Actuators B. 2006, 120: 182. 10.1016/j.snb.2006.02.007View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bhattacharyya S, Gedanken A: Microporous Mesoporous Mater.. 2008, 110: 553. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXjtlWjtb4%3D] 10.1016/j.micromeso.2007.06.053View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lai TL, Lee CC, Huang GL, Shu YY, Wang CB: Appl. Catal. B. 2008, 78: 151. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhsVehsr7L] 10.1016/j.apcatb.2007.09.015View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yang HX, Dong DF, Hu XH: J. Power Sources. 1999, 79: 256. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXjsFGqsLk%3D] 10.1016/S0378-7753(99)00158-5View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hotovy I, Huran J, Spiess L, Hascik S, Rehacek V: Sens. Actuators B. 1999, 57: 147. 10.1016/S0925-4005(99)00077-5View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Garcia-Miquel JL, Zhang Q, Allen SJ, Rougier A, Blyr A, Davies HO, Jones AC, Leedham TJ, Williams PA, Impey SA: Thin Solid Films. 2003, 424: 165. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXhtlyjtb4%3D]; Bibcode number [2003TSF...424..165G] 10.1016/S0040-6090(02)01041-6View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ahmad T, Ramanujachary KV, Lofland SE, Ganguli AK: Solid State Sci.. 2006, 8: 425. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xjs1ahtLs%3D] 10.1016/j.solidstatesciences.2005.12.005View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Borgstrom M, Blart E, Boschloo G, Mukhtar E, Hagfeldt A, Hammarstrom L, Odobel F: J. Phys. Chem. B. 2005, 109: 22928. 10.1021/jp054034aView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen XY, Zhang ZG, Shi CW, Li XL: Mater. Lett.. 2008, 62: 346. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtlyns7fM] 10.1016/j.matlet.2007.05.030View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xia XH, Tu JP, Zhang J, Wang XL, Zhang WK, Huang H: Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells. 2008, 92: 628. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXjs12hu7w%3D] 10.1016/j.solmat.2008.01.009View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Özkan G, Özçelik E: J. Power Sources. 2005, 140: 28. 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2004.08.008View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hongsith N, Viriyaworasakul C, Mangkorntong P, Mangkorntong N, Choopun S: Ceram. Int.. 2008, 34: 823. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXlsFSitLY%3D] 10.1016/j.ceramint.2007.09.099View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xia Y, Yang P, Sun Y, Wu Y, Mayers B, Gates B, Yin Y, Kim F, Yan H: Adv. Mater.. 2003, 15: 353. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXisFemtro%3D] 10.1002/adma.200390087View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huang MH, Mao S, Feick H, Yan H, Wu Y, Kind H, Weber E, Russo R, Yang P: Science. 2001, 292: 1897. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXksVaqsb0%3D]; Bibcode number [2001Sci...292.1897H] 10.1126/science.1060367View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kantam ML, Kumar KBS, Sridhar C: Adv. Synth. Catal.. 2005, 347: 1212. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXntFCqtLo%3D] 10.1002/adsc.200505011View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee SH, Lee HJ, Goto H, Cho MW, Yao T: Phys. Status Solidi C. 2007, 4: 1747. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXltFCks74%3D] 10.1002/pssc.200674279View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shinde VR, Gujar TP, Lokhande CD: Sens. Actuators B. 2007, 123: 701. 10.1016/j.snb.2006.10.003View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yu J, Qiu YJ, Zha XX, Yu M, Yu JL, Rafique J, Yin J: Eur. Polym. J.. 2008, 44: 2838. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhtFent77O] 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2008.05.020View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Deitzel JM, Kleinmeyer J, Harris D, Tan NCB: Polymer (Guildf). 2001, 42: 261. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXmtF2gsLo%3D] 10.1016/S0032-3861(00)00250-0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li JY, Chen XL, Li H, He M, Qiao ZY: J. Cryst. Growth. 2001, 233: 5. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXmtFansb4%3D]; Bibcode number [2001JCrGr.233....5L] 10.1016/S0022-0248(01)01509-3View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ochanda F, Jones WE: Langmuir. 2005, 21: 10791. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtVGqtrjK] 10.1021/la050911sView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bognitzki M, Hou HQ, Ishaque M, Frese T, Hellwig M, Schwarte C, Schaper A, Wendorff JH, Greiner A: Adv. Mater.. 2000, 12: 637. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXkslCitbk%3D] 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4095(200005)12:9<637::AID-ADMA637>3.0.CO;2-WView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li Z, Qian XF, Yin J, Zhu ZK: J. Solid State Chem.. 2005, 178: 1765. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXltVKgtbk%3D]; Bibcode number [2005JSSCh.178.1765L] 10.1016/j.jssc.2005.03.033View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ge LQ, Wang X, Tu ZC, Pan C, Wang C, Gu ZZ: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.. 2007, 46: 6790. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXht1CntbvJ]; Bibcode number [2007JaJAP..46.6790G] 10.1143/JJAP.46.6790View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yan H, Blanford CF, Holland BT, Smyrl WH, Stein A: Chem. Mater.. 2000, 12: 1134. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXhslentro%3D] 10.1021/cm9907763View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Niu HX, Yang Q, Tang KB, Xie Y: Microporous Mesoporous Mater.. 2006, 96: 428. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XhtFKmsbvO] 10.1016/j.micromeso.2006.07.013View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu J, Xue DF: Adv. Mater.. 2008, 20: 2622. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXptVOrsLc%3D]; Bibcode number [2005JMatR..20.2622L] 10.1002/adma.200800208View ArticleGoogle Scholar