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Table 1 Three cases with different diameters of particles, volume fractions, and zeta potentials

From: Numerical study of instability of nanofluids: the coagulation effect and sedimentation effect

Case 1: under different diameters d
   (a) d0 = 10 nm, N p = 1200, ψ = 0.153, ζ = 0.0 eV
   (b) d1 = 25 nm, N p = 1200, ψ = 0.153, ζ = 0.0 eV
   (c) d2 = 50 nm, N p = 1200, ψ = 0.153, ζ = 0.0 eV
Case 2: under different volume fractions ψ
   (a) d1 = 25 nm, N p = 400, ψ = 0.051, ζ = 0.0 eV
   (b) d1 = 25 nm, N p = 1200, ψ = 0.153, ζ = 0.0 eV
   (c) d1 = 25 nm, N p = 2100, ψ = 0.268, ζ = 0.0 eV
   (d) d1 = 25 nm, N p = 4200, ψ = 0.537, ζ = 0.0 eV
Case 3: under different zeta potentials ζ
   (a) d1 = 25 nm, N p = 1200, ψ = 0.153, ζ = 0 eV
   (b) d1 = 25 nm, N p = 1200, ψ = 0.153, ζ = 0.01 eV
   (c) d1 = 25 nm, N p = 1200, ψ = 0.153, ζ = 0.025 eV
   (d) d1 = 25 nm, N p = 1200, ψ = 0.153, ζ = 0.05 eV