- Nano Idea
- Open Access
3D positioning scheme exploiting nano-scale IR-UWB orthogonal pulses
© Kim and Kim; licensee Springer. 2011
- Received: 21 July 2011
- Accepted: 4 October 2011
- Published: 4 October 2011
In these days, the development of positioning technology for realizing ubiquitous environments has become one of the most important issues. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a well-known positioning scheme, but it is not suitable for positioning in in-door/building environments because it is difficult to maintain line-of-sight condition between satellites and a GPS receiver. To such problem, various positioning methods such as RFID, WLAN, ZigBee, and Bluetooth have been developed for indoor positioning scheme. However, the majority of positioning schemes are focused on the two-dimension positioning even though three-dimension (3D) positioning information is more useful especially in indoor applications, such as smart space, U-health service, context aware service, etc. In this paper, a 3D positioning system based on mutually orthogonal nano-scale impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) signals and cross array antenna is proposed. The proposed scheme uses nano-scale IR-UWB signals providing fine time resolution and high-resolution multiple signal specification algorithm for the time-of-arrival and the angle-of-arrival estimation. The performance is evaluated over various IEEE 802.15.4a channel models, and simulation results show the effectiveness of proposed scheme.
- 3D positioning
- nano-scale pulse
- impulse radio
The extraction of interesting features or positioning information from target objectives has become increasingly popular and required for realizing intelligent environment services such as smart space, U-health service, context aware service, etc [1–3]. It is well known that the outdoor positioning system has shown a lot of progress with Global Positioning System (GPS), which is a navigation system based on satellite signals. However, this method is useful only in the line-of-sight condition between satellites and GPS receivers, i.e., outdoor environments. It is hard to get the positioning information by using the GPS in in-door/building environments, where most urban peoples are active and reside. Recently, the importance of indoor positioning technology has been gradually increased because of rescue operations and disaster prevention in underground shopping centers, factories, logistics centers, and so on. As indoor positioning method, various systems such as RFID, WLAN, ZigBee, and Bluetooth have been considered, but their positioning errors are several meters to tens of meters. Moreover, most positioning researches have been focused on two-dimension (2D) positioning even though three-dimension (3D) positioning information is more useful in indoor applications. In indoor environments, the time-of-arrival (TOA) and the angle-of-arrival (AOA) approaches are well-known scheme for a high-precision ranging purpose.
The former estimates the distance between a mobile system (MS) and a base station (BS) by estimating the time-of-flight of signal and it requires minimum three BSs for the 2D positioning, while the latter estimates the receiving angle of the signal and it requires minimum two BSs. Various super-resolution techniques, like multiple signal specification (MUSIC) , minimum norm , and total least square estimation of signal parameter via rotational invariance techniques , have been researched for achieving precise ranging and angle information against severe multipath fading channels. Among them, MUSIC is the most widely used algorithm based on eigenvalue decomposition of an array input correlation matrix due to its high-resolution capability, simplicity, and low computational complexity. In the mean time, the impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) signal is based on the radiation of a train of extremely short pulses, typically in the range of nanoseconds and sub-nanoseconds, which results in fine time resolution for high-precision ranging performance. However, the different positioning performance is caused by what type of pulse shape. For instance, the interference problem between the pulses transmitted at the same time can be resolved by using the orthogonal pulses, and thereby the diversity gain can be achieved with multiple orthogonal pulses.
The rest of this paper is organized as follows. The proposed system description is addressed in "Background." In "Result," the effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated with simulation results. The conclusion is made in "Conclusions."
where n is order of the pulse and α is duration factor and its value is 1/128e17.
The signal model in Equation 5 can be used to minimum mean square error (MMSE) for channel estimation and jointly estimate θ k and τ k in the 2D MUSIC algorithm. The detection with different pulse shapes is evaluated with correlators, and the estimation performance of angle and distance is compared at the receiver. Based on the performance comparison for angle and distance estimations, position estimation can be performed by selecting the pulse shape providing enhanced performance.
where I represents an identity matrix.
Angle and distance estimation
where E i is the i th column vector of the noise eigenvectors and s = (θ, τ) is the column vector of S having arbitrary direction θ and delay, τ. For the special case that θ = θ k and τ = τ k , the corresponding signal vector is orthogonal to E i . Therefore, we can estimate the desired values by detecting the maximum value of the pseudo-spectrum on the AOA-TOA plane.
Characteristic of 802.15.4a channel models
Center frequency (GHz)
MS and BS distance (m)
7 to 20
3 to 28
5 to 17
In this paper, we evaluated performance of 3D positioning system with nano-scale IR-UWB pulses. In the CM1, fifth MHP confirmed that the performance is good than fourth MHP in all SNR. In the CM3 and the CM5, the fourth MHP showed good ranging performance in less than about 5 dB and in more than about 25 dB. The fifth MHP showed an excellent performance in angle estimation than fourth MHP in less than about 25 dB. However, the performances of the two pulses are similar in more than about 25 dB. The simulation results showed the different performance according to pulse shape and CMs. With consideration of SNR and channel environments, therefore, the use of different pulse shape can enhance estimation performance compared to that of the system using only one pulse.
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (no. 2011-0004197). The present research has been conducted by the research grant of Kwangwoon University in 2011.
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