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Table 1 Summary of effects of laser conditions to tip growth

From: Study of nanostructure growth with nanoscale apex induced by femtosecond laser irradiation at megahertz repetition rate

Laser parameters Effects on nanotip growth
Pulse width Short pulses yield narrow long tips
Repetition rate Higher repetition rate promotes the growth of dense, oriented narrow nanotips
Dwell time Longer dwell time increases the population of nanotips. However, beyond an optimum dwell time, over heating will remelt the newly formed nanotips
Polarization Linear (p-) polarization increases the population of nanotips