- Nano Review
- Open Access
Dendrimers: synthesis, applications, and properties
© Abbasi et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
- Received: 3 March 2014
- Accepted: 3 May 2014
- Published: 21 May 2014
Dendrimers are nano-sized, radially symmetric molecules with well-defined, homogeneous, and monodisperse structure that has a typically symmetric core, an inner shell, and an outer shell. Their three traditional macromolecular architectural classes are broadly recognized to generate rather polydisperse products of different molecular weights. A variety of dendrimers exist, and each has biological properties such as polyvalency, self-assembling, electrostatic interactions, chemical stability, low cytotoxicity, and solubility. These varied characteristics make dendrimers a good choice in the medical field, and this review covers their diverse applications.
Structure and chemistry
Dendrimers are just in between molecular chemistry and polymer chemistry. They relate to the molecular chemistry world by virtue of their step-by-step controlled synthesis, and they relate to the polymer world because of their repetitive structure made of monomers [32–35]. The three traditional macromolecular architectural classes (i.e., linear, cross-linked, and branched) are broadly recognized to generate rather polydisperse products of different molecular weights. In contrast, the synthesis of dendrimers offers the chance to generate monodisperse, structure-controlled macromolecular architectures similar to those observed in biological systems [36, 37]. Dendrimers are generally prepared using either a divergent method or a convergent one . In the different methods, dendrimer grows outward from a multifunctional core molecule. The core molecule reacts with monomer molecules containing one reactive and two dormant groups, giving the first-generation dendrimer. Then, the new periphery of the molecule is activated for reactions with more monomers.
Cascade reactions are the foundation of dendrimer synthesis
The synthesis of dendrimers follows either a divergent or convergent approach
Properties of dendrimers
When comparing dendrimers with other nanoscale synthetic structures (e.g., traditional polymers, buck balls, or carbon nanotubes), these are either highly non-defined or have limited structural diversity.
Pharmacokinetic properties are one of the most significant aspects that need to be considered for the successful biomedical application of dendrimers, for instance, drug delivery, imaging, photodynamic therapy, and neutron capture therapy. The diversity of potential applications of dendrimers in medicine results in increasing interest in this area. For example, there are several modifications of dendrimers' peripheral groups which enable to obtain antibody-dendrimer, peptide-dendrimer conjugates or dendritic boxes that encapsulate guest molecules .
Covalent conjugation strategies
Polyvalency is useful as it provides for versatile functionalization; it is also extremely important to produce multiple interactions with biological receptor sites, for example, in the design of antiviral therapeutic agents.
Molecular recognition events at dendrimer surfaces are distinguished by the large number of often identical end-groups presented by the dendritic host. When these groups are charged, the surface may have as a polyelectrolyte and is likely to electrostatically attract oppositely charged molecules . One example of electrostatic interactions between polyelectrolyte dendrimers and charged species include the aggregation of methylene blue on the dendrimer surface and the binding of EPR probes such as copper complexes and nitroxide cation radicals [54, 55].
Today, dendrimers have several medicinal and practical applications.
Dendrimers in biomedical field
Dendritic polymers have advantage in biomedical applications. These dendritic polymers are analogous to protein, enzymes, and viruses, and are easily functionalized. Dendrimers and other molecules can either be attached to the periphery or can be encapsulated in their interior voids . Modern medicine uses a variety of this material as potential blood substitutes, e.g., polyamidoamine dendrimers .
Perhaps the most promising potential of dendrimers is in their possibility to perform controlled and specified drug delivery, which regards the topic of nanomedicine. One of the most fundamental problems that are set toward modern medicine is to improve pharmacokinetic properties of drugs for cancer . Drugs conjugated with polymers are characterized by lengthened half-life, higher stability, water solubility, decreased immunogenicity, and antigenicity . Unique pathophysiological traits of tumors such as extensive angiogenesis resulting in hypervascularization, the increased permeability of tumor vasculature, and limited lymphatic drainage enable passive targeting, and as a result, selective accumulation of macromolecules in tumor tissue. This phenomenon is known as ‘enhanced permeation and retention’ (EPR) [58, 60]. The drug-dendrimer conjugates show high solubility, reduced systemic toxicity, and selective accumulation in solid tumors. Different strategies have been proposed to enclose within the dendrimer structure drug molecules, genetic materials, targeting agents, and dyes either by encapsulation, complexation, or conjugation.
Dendrimers in drug delivery
In 1982, Maciejewski proposed, for the first time, the utilization of these highly branched molecules as molecular containers . Host-guest properties of dendritic polymers are currently under scientific investigation and have gained crucial position in the field of supramolecular chemistry. Host-guest chemistry is based on the reaction of binding of a substrate molecule (guest) to a receptor molecule (host) .
Transdermal drug delivery
Clinical use of NSAIDs is limited due to adverse reactions such as GI side effects and renal side effects when given orally. Transdermal drug delivery overcomes these bad effects and also maintains therapeutic blood level for longer period of time. Transdermal delivery suffers poor rates of transcutaneous delivery due to barrier function of the skin. Dendrimers have found applications in transdermal drug delivery systems. Generally, in bioactive drugs having hydrophobic moieties in their structure and low water solubility, dendrimers are a good choice in the field of efficient delivery system .
The primary promise that the combination of understanding molecular pathways of disease and the complete human genome sequence would yield safer and more efficient medicines and revolutionize the way we treat patients has not been fulfilled to date. However, there is little doubt that genetic therapies will make a significant contribution to our therapeutic armamentarium once some of the key challenges, such as specific and efficient delivery, have been solved . The ability to deliver pieces of DNA to the required parts of a cell includes many challenges. Current research is being performed to find ways to use dendrimers to traffic genes into cells without damaging or deactivating the DNA. To maintain the activity of DNA during dehydration, the dendrimer/DNA complexes were encapsulated in a water soluble polymer and then deposited on or sandwiched in functional polymer films with a fast degradation rate to mediate gene transfection. Based on this method, PAMAM dendrimer/DNA complexes were used to encapsulate functional biodegradable polymer films for substrate-mediated gene delivery. Research has shown that the fast-degrading functional polymer has great potential for localized transfection [65–67].
Dendrimers as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents
Dendrimer-based metal chelates act as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. Dendrimers are extremely appropriate and used as image contrast media because of their properties .
Dendrimers used for enhancing solubility
PAMAM dendrimers are expected to have potential applications in enhancing solubility for drug delivery systems. Dendrimers have hydrophilic exteriors and interiors, which are responsible for its unimolecular micelle nature. Dendrimer-based carriers offer the opportunity to enhance the oral bioavailability of problematic drugs. Thus, dendrimer nano carriers offer the potential to enhance the bioavailability of drugs that are poorly soluble and/or substrates for efflux transporters [70, 71].
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) relies on the activation of a photosensitizing agent with visible or near-infrared (NIR) light. Upon excitation, a highly energetic state is formed which, upon reaction with oxygen, affords a highly reactive singlet oxygen capable of inducing necrosis and apoptosis in tumor cells. Dendritic delivery of PDT agents has been investigated within the last few years in order to improve upon tumor selectivity, retention, and pharmacokinetics [72–75].
Miscellaneous dendrimer applications
Clearly, there are many other areas of biological chemistry where application of dendrimer systems may be helpful. Cellular delivery using carrier dendritic polymers is used in the purification of water dendrimer-based product in cosmetics contaminated by toxic metal ion and inorganic solute, and dendrimer-based commercial products organic solutes . Furthermore, highly sensitive analytical devices [77, 78], MRI contrast agents , prion research , burn treatment , and EPR imaging with spin-labeled dendrimers [82–106] are some of the diverse areas of fascinating ongoing dendrimer research that are beyond the scope of this article.
Dendrimers are characterized by individual features that make them hopeful candidates for a lot of applications. Dendrimers are highly defined artificial macromolecules, which are characterized by a combination of a high number of functional groups and a compact molecular structure. A rapid increase of importance in the chemistry of dendrimers has been observed since the first dendrimers were prepared. Work was established to determine the methods of preparing and investigating the properties of the novel class of macro and micromolecules. In spite of the two decades since the finding of dendrimers, the multi-step synthesis still requires great effort.
The authors thank the Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences for all the support provided. This work is funded by Grant 2011-0014246 of the National Research Foundation of Korea.
- Srinivasa-Gopalan S, Yarema KJ: Nanotechnologies for the Life Sciences: Dendrimers in Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, Volume 7. New York: Wiley; 2007.Google Scholar
- Klajnert B, Bryszewska M: Dendrimers: properties and applications. Acta Biochim Pol 2001, 48: 199–208.Google Scholar
- Tomalia DA, Frechet JMJ: Discovery of dendrimers and dendritic polymers: a brief historical perspective. J Polym Sci A Polym Chem 2002, 40: 2719–2728.Google Scholar
- Tomalia DA: The dendritic state. Mater Today 2005, 8: 34–36.Google Scholar
- Tomalia DA, Baker H, Dewald J, Hall M, Kallos M, Martin S, Roeck J, Ryder J, Smith P: A new class of polymers: starburst-dendritic macromolecules. Polym J (Tokyo) 1985, 17: 117.Google Scholar
- Newkome GR, Yao Z-Q, Baker GR, Gupta VK: Cascade molecules: a new approach to micelles. J Org Chem 1985, 50: 2003.Google Scholar
- Hawker CJ, Frechet JMJ: Preparation of polymers with controlled molecular architecture: a new convergent approach to dendritic macromolecules. J Am Chem Soc 1990, 112: 7638–7647.Google Scholar
- De Gennes PG, Hervet H: Statistics of starburst polymers. J de Physique Lett (Paris) 1983, 44: 9–351.Google Scholar
- Mansfield ML, Klushin LI: Monte Carlo studies of dendrimer macromolecules. Macromolecules 1993, 26: 4262.Google Scholar
- Bhalgat MK, Roberts JC: Molecular modeling of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) Starburst™ dendrimers. Eur Polym J 2000, 36: 647–651.Google Scholar
- Bosman AW, Meijer EW: About dendrimers: structure, physical properties, and applications. Chem Rev 1999, 99: 1665–1688.Google Scholar
- Gilles ER, Frechet JMJ: Dendrimers and dendritic polymers in drug delivery. Drug Discov Today 2005, 10: 35–43.Google Scholar
- Tomalia DA, Baker H, Dewald JR, Hall M, Kallos G, Martin S, Roeck J, Ryder J, Smith P: Dendrimers II: architecture, nanostructure and supramolecular chemistry. Macromolecules 1986, 19: 2466.Google Scholar
- Kim Y, Zimmerman SC: Applications of dendrimers in bio-organic chemistry. Curr Opin Chem Biol 1998, 2: 733–742.Google Scholar
- Smith DK, Diederich F: Functional dendrimers: unique biological mimics. Chem Eur J 1998, 4: 1353–1361.Google Scholar
- Stiriba S-E, Frey H, Haag R: Dendritic polymers in biomedical applications: from potential to clinical use in diagnostics and therapy. Angew Chem Int Ed 2002, 41: 1329–1334.Google Scholar
- Tomalia DA, Frechet JMJ: Discovery of dendrimers and dendritic polymers: a brief historical perspective. J Polym Sci Part A 2002, 40: 2719.Google Scholar
- Wolinsky JB, Grinstaff MW: Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of dendrimers for cancer treatment. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2008, 60: 1037–1055.Google Scholar
- Svenson S, Tomalia DA: Dendrimers in biomedical applications—reflections on the field. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2005, 57: 2106–2129.Google Scholar
- Tomalia DA, Baker H, Dewald J, Hall M, Kallos G, Martin S, Roeck J, Ryder J, Smith P: Dendritic macromolecules: synthesis of starburst dendrimers. Macromolecules 1986, 19: 2466–2468.Google Scholar
- Zimmerman SC: Dendrimers in molecular recognition and self-assembly. Curr Opin Colloid Interfac Sci 1997, 2: 89.Google Scholar
- Zeng FW, Zimmerman SC: Dendrimers in supramolecular chemistry: from molecular recognition to self-assembly. Chem Rev 1997, 97: 1681.Google Scholar
- Moore JS: Shape-persistent molecular architectures of nanoscale dimension. Acc Chem Res 1997, 30: 402.Google Scholar
- Zimmerman SC, Lawless LJ: Topics in Current Chemistry: Supramolecular Chemistry of Dendrimers, Volume 217. New York: Springer; 2001.Google Scholar
- Boris D, Rubinstein M: A self-consistent mean field model of a starburst dendrimers: dense core vs. dense shells. Macromolecules 1996, 29: 7251–7260.Google Scholar
- Tomalia DA, Baker H, Dewald JR, Hall M, Kallos G, Martin S: A new class of polymers: starburst-dendritic macromolecules. Polym J 1985, 17(1):117–132.Google Scholar
- Spataro G, Malecaze F, Turrin CO, Soler V, Duhayon C, Elena PP: Designing dendrimers for ocular drug delivery. Eur J Med Chem 2010, 45(1):326–334.Google Scholar
- Tomalia DA, Hedstrand DM, Ferritto MS: Comb-burst dendrimer topology: new macromolecular architecture derived from dendritic grafting. Macromolecules 1991, 24: 1435.Google Scholar
- Maciejewski M: Concepts of trapping topologically by shell molecules. J Macromol Sci Chem 1982, A17: 689.Google Scholar
- Kim YH, Webster OW: Water soluble hyperbranched polyphenylene: “a unimolecular micelle?”. J Am Chem Soc 1990, 112: 4592.Google Scholar
- Newkome GRM, Baker GR, Saunders MJ, Grossman SH: Uni-molecular micelles. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 1991, 30: 1178.Google Scholar
- Frechet JMJ, Tomalia DA: Dendrimers and Other Dendritic Polymers. Chichester: Wiley; 2001.Google Scholar
- Newkome GR, Moorefield CN, Vögtle F: Dendrimers and Dendrons: Concepts, Syntheses, Applications. Wiley: Weinheim; 2001.Google Scholar
- Majoral JP, Caminade AM: Dendrimers containing heteroatoms (Si, P, B, Ge, or Bi). Chem Rev 1999, 99: 845–880.Google Scholar
- Bosman AW, Janssen HM, Meijer EW: About dendrimers: structure, physical properties, and applications. Chem Rev 1999, 99: 1665–1688.Google Scholar
- Tomalia DA: Birth of a new macromolecular architecture: dendrimers as quantized building blocks for nanoscale synthetic organic chemistry. Aldrichimica Acta 2004, 37: 39–57.Google Scholar
- Tomalia DA: Dendrimer molecules. Sci Am 1995, 272: 62–66.Google Scholar
- Hodge P: Polymer science branches out. Nature 1993, 362: 18–19.Google Scholar
- Gitsov I, Lin C: Dendrimers – nanoparticles with precisely engineered surfaces. Curr Org Chem 2005, 9: 1025–1051.Google Scholar
- Buhleier E, Wehner W, Vögtle F: “Cascade”- and “nonskid-chain-like” synthesis of molecular cavity topologies. Synthesis 1978, 1978(2):155–158.Google Scholar
- Grayson SM, Frechet JMJ: Convergent dendrons and dendrimers: from synthesis to applications. Chem Rev 2001, 101: 3819–3868.Google Scholar
- Szymanski P, Markowicz M, Mikiciuk-Olasik E: Nanotechnology in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications: Dendrimers. Nano Brief Rep Rev 2011, 6: 509–539.Google Scholar
- Ringsdorf H: Structure and properties of pharmacologically active polymers. J Polym Sci Polym Symp 1975, 51: 135–153.Google Scholar
- Bader H, Ringsdorf H, Schmidt B: Water-soluble polymers in medicine. Angew Makromol Chem 1984, 123/124: 457–485.Google Scholar
- Gillies ER, Dy E, Frechet JMJ, Szoka FC: Biological evaluation of polyester dendrimer: poly (ethylene oxide) “bow-tie” hybrids with tunable molecular weight and architecture. Mol Pharm 2005, 2: 129–138.Google Scholar
- Kolhe P, Khandare J, Pillai O, Kannan S, Lieh-Lai M, Kannan RM: Preparation, cellular transport, and activity of polyamidoamine-based dendritic nanodevices with a high drug payload. Biomaterials 2006, 27: 660–669.Google Scholar
- Emrick T, Fréchet JMJ: Self-assembly of dendritic structures. Curr Opin Coll Interface Sci 1999, 4: 15–23. CrossRef, Web of Science® Times Cited: 80 CrossRef, Web of Science® Times Cited: 80Google Scholar
- Christine D, Ijeoma FU, Andreas GS: Dendrimers in gene delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2005, 57: 2177–2202.Google Scholar
- Wang Y, Zeng FW, Zimmerman SC: Dendrimers with anthyridine-based hydrogen-bonding units at their cores - synthesis, complexation and self-assembly studies. Tetrahedron Lett 1997, 38: 5459.Google Scholar
- Kolotuchin SV, Zimmerman SC: Self-assembly mediated by the donor-donor-acceptor, acceptor-acceptor-donor (DDA, AAD) hydrogen-bonding motif: formation of a robust hexameric aggregate. J Am Chem Soc 1998, 120: 9092.Google Scholar
- Issberner J, Vogtle F, Decola L, Balzani V: Dendritic bipyridine ligands and their tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chelates—syntheses, absorption spectra, and photophysical properties. Chem Eur J 1997, 3: 706.Google Scholar
- Gibson HW, Hamilton L, Yamaguchi N: Molecular self-assembly of dendrimers, non-covalent polymers and polypseudorotaxanes. Polym Adv Technol 2000, 11: 791.Google Scholar
- Zeng F, Zimmerman SC: Dendrimers in supramolecular chemistry: from molecular recognition to self-assembly. Chem Rev 1997, 97: 1681–1712.Google Scholar
- Ottaviani MF, Bossmann S, Turro NJ, Tomalia DA: Characterization of starburst dendrimers by the EPR technique. 1. Copper complexes in water solution. J Am Chem Soc 1994, 116: 661–671.Google Scholar
- Ottaviani MF, Cossu E, Turro NJ, Tomalia DA: Characterization of starburst dendrimers by electron paramagnetic resonance. 2. Positively charged nitroxide radicals of variable chain length used as spin probes. J Am Chem Soc 1995, 117: 4387–4398.Google Scholar
- Patel HN, Patel DRPM: Dendrimer applications – a review. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2013, 4(2):454–463.Google Scholar
- Ruth D, Lorella I: Dendrimer biocompatibility and toxicity. Ad Drug Deliv Rev 2005, 57: 2215–2237.Google Scholar
- Sampathkumar SG, Yarema KJ: Chapter 1: dendrimers in cancer treatment and diagnosis. In Nanotechnologies for the Life Sciences. Volume 6: Nanomaterials for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy. Edited by: Kumar CSSR. Hoboken: Wiley; 2007:1–47.Google Scholar
- Pasut G, Veronese FM: Polymer - drug conjugation, recent achievements and general strategies. Prog Polym Sci 2007, 32: 933.Google Scholar
- Gillies ER, Frechet JMJ: Dendrimers and dendritic polymers in drug delivery. DDT 2005, 10(1):35–43.Google Scholar
- Maciejewski M: Concepts of trapping topologically by shell molecules. J Macromol Sci Chem A 1982, 17: 689.Google Scholar
- Herrmann A, Mihov G, Vandermeulen GWM, Klok H-A, Mullen K: Peptide-functionalized polyphenylene dendrimers. Tetrahedron 2003, 59: 3925.Google Scholar
- Cheng Y, Man N, Xu T, Fu R, Wang X, Wang X, Wen L: Transdermal delivery of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs mediated by polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers. J Pharm Sci 2007, 96: 595–602.Google Scholar
- Pearson S, Jia H, Kandachi K: China approves first gene therapy. Nat Biotechnol 2004, 22: 3–4.Google Scholar
- Fu H-L, Cheng S-X, Zhang X-Z, Zhuo R-X: Dendrimer/DNA complexes encapsulated functional biodegradable polymer for substrate-mediated gene delivery. J Gene Med 2008, 10(12):1334–1342.Google Scholar
- Fu HL, Cheng SX, Zhang XZ: Dendrimer/DNA complexes encapsulated in a water soluble polymer and supported on fast degrading star poly (DL-lactide) for localized gene delivery. J Gene Med 2007, 124(3):181–188.Google Scholar
- Tathagata D, Minakshi G, Jain NK: Poly (propyleneimine) dendrimer and dendrosome based genetic immunization against hepatitis B. Vaccine 2008, 26(27–28):3389–3394.Google Scholar
- Balzani V, Ceroni P, Gestermann S, Kauffmann C, Gorka M, Vögtle F: Dendrimers as fluorescent sensors with signal amplification. Chem Commun 2000, 2000: 853–854.Google Scholar
- Beer PD, Gale PA, Smith DK: Supramolecular Chemistry. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1999.Google Scholar
- Tomalia DA, Baker H, Dewald JR, Hall M, Kallos G, Martin S, Roeck J, Ryder J, Smith P: Dendrimers II: architecture, nanostructure and supramolecular chemistry. Macromolecules 1986, 19: 2466.Google Scholar
- Froehling PE: Dendrimers and dyes – a review. Dyes Pigments 2001, 48: 187–195.Google Scholar
- Triesscheijn M, Baas P, Schellens JH, Stewart FA: Photodynamic therapy in oncology. Oncologist 2006, 11: 1034–1044.Google Scholar
- Nishiyama N, Stapert HR, Zhang GD, Takasu D, Jiang DL, Nagano T, Aida T, Kataoka K: Light-harvesting ionic dendrimer porphyrins as new photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy. Bioconjug Chem 2003, 14: 58–66.Google Scholar
- Zhang GD, Harada A, Nishiyama N, Jiang DL, Koyama H, Aida T, Kataoka K: Polyion complex micelles entrapping cationic dendrimer porphyrin: effective photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of cancer. J Control Release 2003, 93: 141–150.Google Scholar
- Battah SH, Chee CE, Nakanishi H, Gerscher S, MacRobert AJ, Edwards C: Synthesis and biological studies of 5-aminolevulinic acid containing dendrimers for photodynamic therapy. Bioconjug Chem 2001, 12: 980–988.Google Scholar
- Tiwari DK, Behari J, Sen P: Application of nanoparticles in waste water treatment. World Appl Sci J 2008, 3: 417–433.Google Scholar
- Yoon HC, Lee D, Kim H-S: Reversible affinity interactions of antibody molecules at functionalized dendrimer monolayer: affinity-sensing surface with reusability. Anal Chim Acta 2002, 456: 209–218.Google Scholar
- Benters R, Niemeyer CM, Drutschmann D, Blohm D, Wohrle D: DNA microarrays with PAMAM dendritic linker systems. Nucleic Acid Res 2002, 30: 1–11.Google Scholar
- Konda SD, Wang S, Brechbiel M, Wiener EC: Biodistribution of a 153Gd-folate dendrimer, generation = 4, in mice with folate-receptor positive and negative ovarian tumor xenografts. Invest Radiol 2002, 37: 199–204.Google Scholar
- Supattapone S, Nishina K, Rees JR: Pharmacological approaches to prion research. Biochem Pharmacol 2002, 63: 1383–1388.Google Scholar
- Halkes SBA, Vrasidas I, Rooijer GR, van den Berg AJJ, Liskamp RMJ, Pieters RJ: Synthesis and biological activity of polygalloyl-dendrimers as stable tannic acid mimics. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2002, 12: 1567–1570.Google Scholar
- Yordanov AT, Yamada K-I, Krishna MC, Mitchell JB, Woller E, Cloninger M, Brechbiel MW: Spin-labeled dendrimers in EPR imaging with low molecular weight nitroxides. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2001, 40: 2690–2692.Google Scholar
- Akbarzadeh A, Mikaeili H, Asgari D, Zarghami N, Mohammad R, Davaran S: Preparation and in-vitro evaluation of doxorubicin-loaded Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles modified with biocompatible copolymers. Int J Nanomed 2012, 7: 511–526.Google Scholar
- Abolfazl A, Nosratollah Z, Haleh M, Davoud A, Amir Mohammad G, Khaksar Khiabani H, Soodabeh D: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation of novel polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles for controlled delivery of doxorubicin. Inter J Nanotechnol Sci Environ 2012, 5: 13–25.Google Scholar
- Akbarzadeh A, Samiei M, Joo SW, Anzaby M, Hanifehpour Y, Nasrabadi HT, Davaran : Synthesis, characterization and in vitro studies of doxorubicin-loaded magnetic nanoparticles grafted to smart copolymers on A549 lung cancer cell line. J Nanobiotechnol 2012, 10: 46–58.Google Scholar
- Zohreh E, Nosratollah Z, Manoutchehr K, Soumaye A, Abolfazl A, Mohammad R, Zohreh Mohammad T, Kazem N-K: Inhibition of hTERT gene expression by silibinin-loaded PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 in T47D breast cancer cell line. Bio Impacts 2013, 3(2):67–74.Google Scholar
- Soodabeh D, Samira A, Kazem N-K, Hamid Tayefi N, Abolfazl A, Amir Ahmad K, Mojtaba A, Somayeh A: Synthesis and study of physicochemical characteristics of Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposites based on poly(nisopropylacrylamide) for anti-cancer drugs delivery. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014, 15(1):049–054.Google Scholar
- Rogaie R-S, Nosratollah Z, Abolfazl B, Akram E, Abolfazl A, Mustafa R-T: Studies of the relationship between structure and antioxidant activity in interesting systems, including tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives indicated by quantum chemical calculations. Soft 2013, 2: 13–18.Google Scholar
- Kazem N-K, Abolfazl A, Mohammad P-M, San Woo J: Inhibition of leptin and leptin receptor gene expression by silibinin-curcumin combination. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013, 14(11):6595–6599.Google Scholar
- Ghasemali S, Nejati-Koshki K, Akbarzadeh A, Tafsiri E, Zarghami N, Rahmati-Yamchi M, Alizadeh E, Barkhordari A, Tozihi M, Kordi S: Study of inhibitory effect of β-cyclodextrin-helenalin complex on HTERT gene expression in T47D breast cancer cell line by real time quantitative PCR (q-PCR). Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013, 14(11):6949–6953.Google Scholar
- Mollazade M, Nejati-Koshki K, Abolfazl A, Younes H, Zarghami N, Sang Woo J: PAMAM dendrimers augment inhibitory effects of curcumin on cancer cell proliferation: possible inhibition of telomerase. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013, 14(11):6925–6928.Google Scholar
- Soodabeh D, Akbar R, Somayeh A, Amir Ahmad K, Kazem N-K, Hamid Tayefi N, Abolfazl A: Synthesis and physicochemical characterization of biodegradable star-shaped poly lactide-co-glycolide–β-cyclodextrin copolymer nanoparticles containing albumin. Adv Nanoparticles 2014, 3: 14–22.Google Scholar
- Soodabeh D, Abolfazl A, Kazem N-K, Somayeh A, Mahmoud Farajpour G, Mahsa Mahmoudi S, Akbar R, Amir Ahmad K: In vitro studies of NIPAAM-MAA-VP copolymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles for controlled anticancer drug release. J Encapsul Adsorption Sci 2013, 3: 108–115.Google Scholar
- Ahmadi A, Shirazi H, Pourbagher N, Akbarzadeh A, Omidfar K: An electrochemical immunosensor for digoxin using core-shell gold coated magnetic nanoparticles as labels. Mol Biol Rep 2014, 41(3):1659–1668.Google Scholar
- Abolfazl A, Samiei M, Soodabeh D: Magnetic nanoparticles: preparation, physical properties and applications in biomedicine. Nanoscale Res Lett 2012, 7: 144–157.Google Scholar
- Alireza V, Haleh M, Mohammad S, Samad Mussa F, Nosratollah Z, Mohammad K, Abolfazl A, Soodabeh D: Quantum dots: synthesis, bioapplications, and toxicity. Nanoscale Res Lett 2012, 7: 276.Google Scholar
- Abolfazl A, Rogaie R-S, Soodabeh D, Sang Woo J, Nosratollah Z, Younes H, Mohammad S, Mohammad K, Kazem N-K: Liposome: classification, preparation, and applications. Nanoscale Res Lett 2013, 8: 102.Google Scholar
- Mohammad P-M, Mohammad R-Y, Abolfazl A, Hadis D, Kazem N-K, Younes H, Sang Woo J: Protein detection through different platforms of immuno-loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Nanoscale Res Lett 2013, 8: 485.Google Scholar
- Mohammad K, Ali V, Abolfazl A, Younes H, Sang Woo J: Investigation of quadratic electro-optic effects and electro absorption process in GaN/AlGaN spherical quantum dot. Nanoscale Res Lett 2014. in press in pressGoogle Scholar
- Fariba B, Alireza V, Kazem B, Samane M, Samad Mussa F, Nasrin S, Najme Malekzadeh G, Abolfazl A, Younes H, Sang Woo J, Mohammad R-Y: Nanodetection and nanodrug delivery in lung cancer. Nano Rev 2014. in press in pressGoogle Scholar
- Sohrabi N, Sohrabi Z, Valizadeh A, Mohammadi S, Mussa Farkhani S, Malekzadeh Gonabadi N, Mohammadi M, Badrzade F, Akbarzadeh A, Woo Joo S, Hanifehpour Y: Basic of DNA biosensors and cancer diagnosis. Nano Rev 2014. in press in pressGoogle Scholar
- Tabatabaei Mirakabad FS, Akbarzadeh A, Zarghami N, Zeighamian V, Rahimzadeh A, Alimohammadi S: PLGA-cased nanoparticles as cancer drug delivery systems. APJCP 2014, 15(1):517–535.Google Scholar
- Valizadeh H, Mohammadi G, Ehyaei R, Milani M, Azhdarzadeh M, Zakeri-Milani P, Lotfipour F: Antibacterial activity of clarithromycin loaded PLGA nanoparticles. Pharmazie Int J Pharm Sci 2012, 67(1):63–68.Google Scholar
- Hasani A, Sharifi Y, Ghotaslou R, Naghili B, Aghazadeh M, Milani M: Molecular screening of virulence genes in high-level gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from clinical specimens in Northwest Iran. Indian J Med Microbiol 2012, 30: 2.Google Scholar
- Sharifi Y, Hasani A, Ghotaslou R, Varshochi M, Hasani A, Soroush MH, Aghazadeh M, Milani M: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci among clinical isolates from north-west Iran: identification of therapeutic surrogates. J Med Microbiol 2012, 61(4):600–602.Google Scholar
- Farajnia S, Hassan M, HallajNezhadi S, Mohammadnejad L, Milani M, Lotfipour F: Determination of indicator bacteria in pharmaceutical samples by multiplex PCR. J Rapid Meth Aut Mic 2009, 17(3):328–338.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.