Scanning electron microscopy of DPSCs. (A) DPSC on pSi; magnification × 3,000, scale bar = 30 μm. Inset shows higher magnification of the surface (×150,000) with visible pores, scale bar = 500 nm. (B) Higher magnification (square in A) of DPSC on pSi with protrusions from the cellular body; magnification × 20,000, scale bar = 5 μm. (C) DPSC on flat Si; magnification × 2,000, scale bar = 50 μm. (D) Higher magnification (square in C) of DPSC on flat Si; magnification × 17,000, scale bar = 5 μm.