Effects of the electrical excitation signal parameters on the geometry of an argon-based non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet
© Benabbas et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 10 February 2014
Accepted: 9 December 2014
Published: 26 December 2014
A non-thermal atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet for medical applications has been generated using a high-voltage pulse generator and a homemade dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with a cylindrical configuration. A plasma jet of about 6 cm of length has been created in argon gas at atmospheric pressure with an applied peak to peak voltage and a frequency of 10 kV and 50 kHz, respectively. The length and the shape of the created plasma jet were found to be strongly dependent on the electrode setup and the applied voltage and the signal frequency values. The length of the plasma jet increases when the applied voltage and/or its frequency increase, while the diameter at its end is significantly reduced when the applied signal frequency increases. For an applied voltage of 10 kV, the plasma jet diameter decreases from near 5 mm for a frequency of 10 kHz to less than 1 mm at a frequency of 50 kHz. This obtained size of the plasma jet diameter is very useful when the medical treatment must be processed in a reduced space.
52.50.Dg; 52.70.-m; 52.80.-s
Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jets (NAPPJs) are widely studied because of their promising applications in several areas of industry as well as nano-medicine and biotechnology[1, 2]. The main advantages of this kind of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas are their relatively easy implementation and their use at ambient conditions without any significant risks for the operator and/or the environment. Driven by different high-voltage signals (AC, DC, pulsed DC…)[3, 4] at low or high frequencies[5, 6], NAPPJs are able to produce electrons, ions, free radicals, and photons. Using adequate gas precursors, these reactive plasma species are useful in nano-medicine for bacterial inactivation, cancer treatment, blood coagulation, and injury healing process. Most atmospheric plasma jets are based on dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) configurations, which have the benefit of avoiding glow to arc transition and homogenizing the electrical discharge. Although during these last few years several works have been devoted to the plasma jets technology and their applications, the dependence of the plasma jet characteristics on the electrical parameters of the excitation signal is still not well understood and/or controlled. In the present work, a homemade plasma jet reactor using argon gas as precursor has been developed. We present the results of some investigations about the effects of the electrical parameters of the excitation signal on the plasma jet geometry. This study is carried out in order to obtain a plasma jet with geometry suitable for localized treatments in reduced spaces.
Results and discussion
Effect of applied voltage
In the following, all presented results concern the outer electrode grounded configuration.
Effect of signal frequency
The effect of the signal frequency on the plasma jet length and shape can be explained by the variation of the spatiotemporal distribution of ions. As ions are heavier than electrons, when the signal frequency increases over 20 kHz, they cannot follow the signal variation and then become more static. They concentrate in the middle of the discharge area and the gas flow can project them farther, inducing an increase of the plasma jet length. This expansion of the plasma jet length is mainly due to an increase of the core length and in a smaller amount to that of the tail zone.
The shape of the plasma jet obtained at 10 kV by varying the signal frequency from 20 to 30 kHz is close to that observed by Nie et al. and Li et al. on the plasma jet of argon gas for an applied voltage and a signal frequency of 2.7 kV, 48 kHz and 2.6 kV, 40 kHz, respectively, and by Kim et al. and Jiang et al. on the plasma jet of helium gas for an applied voltage and a signal frequency of 1.2 kV, 50 kHz and 9 kV, 17 kHz, respectively.
An argon-based non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet has been created using DBD configuration. The dependence of the plasma jet geometry on the electrical parameters of the excitation signal and electrode setup has been investigated. It has been found that the shape and the length of the plasma jet are dependent on the electrode setup and the electrical parameters. The plasma jet spreads more towards the grounded electrode, and its length and shape can be controlled by varying the applied voltage and signal frequency values. A plasma jet with a core zone diameter of about a few hundreds of micrometers has been obtained. Such plasma jet size is very useful when the jet will be used in a reduced space and/or when the medical treatment must be well localized.
This work was supported by the Algerian Thematic Agency of Research in Sciences and Technology (ATRST).
- Walk RM, Snyder JA, Srinivasan P, Kirsch J, Diaz SO, Blanco FC, Shashurin A, Keidar M, Sandler AD: Cold atmospheric plasma for the ablative treatment of neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 2013, 48: 67–73. 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.10.020View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Daeschlein G, Scholz S, Ahmed R, von Woedtke T, Haase H, Niggemeier M, Kindel E, Brandenburg R, Weltmann KD, Juenger M: Skin decontamination by low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma jet and dielectric barrier discharge plasma. J Hosp Infect 2012, 81: 177–183. 10.1016/j.jhin.2012.02.012View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xiong Q, Lu XP, Ostrikov K, Xian Y, Zou C, Xiong Z, Pan Y: Pulsed dc- and sine-wave-excited cold atmospheric plasma plumes: a comparative analysis. Phys Plasmas 2010, 17: 043506. 10.1063/1.3381132View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li X, Di C, Jia P, Bao W: Characteristics of a direct current-driven plasma jet operated in open air. Appl Phys Lett 2013, 103: 144107. 10.1063/1.4824305View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Seo YS, Lee HW, Kwon HC, Choi J, Lee SM, Woo KC, Kim KT, Lee JK: A study on characterization of atmospheric pressure plasma jets according to the driving frequency for biomedical applications. Thin Solid Films 2011, 519: 7071–7078. 10.1016/j.tsf.2010.11.057View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim SJ, Chung TH, Bae SH, Leem SH: Characterization of atmospheric pressure microplasma jet source and its application to bacterial inactivation. Plasma Process Polym 2009, 6: 676–685. 10.1002/ppap.200850001View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guimin X, Guanjun Z, Xingmin S, Yue M, Ning W, Yuan L: Bacteria inactivation using DBD plasma jet in atmospheric pressure argon. Plasma Sci Technol 2009, 11: 83–88. 10.1088/1009-0630/11/1/17View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim JY, Ballato J, Foy P, Hawkins T, Wei Y, Li J, Kim SO: Apoptosis of lung carcinoma cells induced by a flexible optical fiber-based cold microplasma. Biosens Bioelectron 2011, 28: 333–338. 10.1016/j.bios.2011.07.039View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Raiser J, Zenker M: Argon plasma coagulation for open surgical and endoscopic applications: state of the art. J Phys D Appl Phys 2006, 39: 3520–3523. 10.1088/0022-3727/39/16/S10View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shao XJ, Jiang N, Zhang GJ, Cao ZX: Comparative study on the atmospheric pressure plasma jets of helium and argon. Appl Phys Lett 2012, 101: 253509. 10.1063/1.4772639View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hong Y, Lu N, Pan J, Li J, Wu Y, Shang KF: Characteristic study of cold atmospheric argon plasma jets with rod-tube/tube high voltage electrode. J Electrostat 2013, 71: 93–101. 10.1016/j.elstat.2012.12.009View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shao XJ, Zhang GJ, Zhan JY, Mu HB: Investigation on spurt length of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets. IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 2011, 39: 2340–2341.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xiong Q, Lu X, Ostrikov K, Xiong Z, Xian Y, Zhou F, Zou C, Hu J, Gong W, Jiang Z: Length control of He atmospheric plasma jet plumes: effects of discharge parameters and ambient air. Phys Plasmas 2009, 16: 043505. 10.1063/1.3119212View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xiong R, Xiong Q, Nikiforov AY, Vanraes P, Leys C: Influence of helium mole fraction distribution on the properties of cold atmospheric pressure helium plasma jets. J Appl Phys 2012, 112: 033305. 10.1063/1.4746700View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nie QY, Ren CS, Wang DZ, Zhang JL: A simple cold Ar plasma jet generated with a floating electrode at atmospheric pressure. Appl Phys Lett 2008, 93: 011503. 10.1063/1.2956411View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li X, Jia P, Yuan N, Fang T, Wang L: One atmospheric pressure plasma jet with two modes at a frequency of several tens kHz. Phys Plasmas 2011, 18: 043505. 10.1063/1.3586499View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim DB, Rhee JK, Gweon B, Moon SY, Choe W: Comparative study of atmospheric pressure low and radio frequency microjet plasmas produced in a single electrode configuration. Appl Phys Lett 2007, 91: 151502. 10.1063/1.2794774View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jiang N, Ji A, Cao Z: Atmospheric pressure plasma jets beyond ground electrode as charge overflow in a dielectric barrier discharge setup. J Appl Phys 2010, 108: 033302. 10.1063/1.3466993View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.