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Table 1 Morphology, density, diameter, length, thickness, and average aspect ratio of the grown ZnO structures

From: Seed/catalyst-free growth of zinc oxide on graphene by thermal evaporation: effects of substrate inclination angles and graphene thicknesses

Substrate Substrate position Temperature (°C) Morphology Density (cm −2 ) Diameter of nanorods/nanoneedles (nm) Length of nanorods (nm) Thickness (nm) Average aspect ratio
SL graphene on SiO2/Si 90° inclined 600 Non-continuous nanoclusters - - - ~93 -
This work 90° inclined 800 A mixture of vertically non-aligned and aligned nanorods 1.2 × 109 37–74 93–574 ~40 (base structure) ~5.1
90° inclined 1,000 Randomly dispersed clusters - - - - -
ML graphene on SiO2/ Si 90° inclined 600 Continuous clusters/layer - - - ~1,062 -
This work 90° inclined 800 Nanorods 7.0 × 109 <150 <540 ~90 (base structure) ~2.8
90° inclined 1,000 Thin film - - - ~74 -
ML graphene SiO2/ Si by thermal evaporation [3] 45° inclined 600 Non-continuous nanoclusters - - - ~200 -
45° inclined 800 Nanorods 6.9 × 109 <150 <540 ~50 (base structure) ~2.8
45° inclined 1,000 Thin film - - - ~60 -
Porous silicon by thermal evaporation [21] Placed on source boat and facing downward 800 Nanorods 1.2 × 108 200–500 Not stated - Not stated
ML graphene on SiO2/Si by MOVPE [1] Standard horizontal position 400 Nanorods 4.0 × 109 100 ± 10 1,000 ± 100 - ~10.0
   600 Nanoneedles 8.0 × 109 90 ± 20 4,000 ± 600 - ~44.4
   750 Nanoneedles 5.0 × 107 Not stated 3,500 ± 500 - Not stated