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Table 2 Fractal dimensions ( D f ) calculated by four different methods

From: Selective aggregation of PAMAM dendrimer nanocarriers and PAMAM/ZnPc nanodrugs on human atheromatous carotid tissues: a photodynamic therapy for atherosclerosis

  Variance Cube counting Triangulation Power spectrum
1 × 1 μm     
 Healthy 2.23 2.18 2.23 1.68
 Atheromatous 2.41 2.25 2.34 1.89
 Healthy + PAMAM 2.42 2.13 2.18 2.01
 Glass + PAMAM (0.05 M) 2.36 2.21 2.26 2.44
 Glass + PAMAM (0.025 M) 2.49 2.19 2.22 2.05
2 × 2 μm     
 Healthy 2.30 2.14 2.21 1.95
 Atheromatous 2.52 2.24 2.29 1.66
 Healthy + PAMAM 2.49 2.22 2.28 2.40
 Atheromatous + PAMAM 2.44 2.17 2.14 2.43
 Atheromatous + PAMAM + ZnPc 2.19 2.13 2.18 1.56
3 × 3 μm     
 Atheromatous 2.32 2.19 2.25 1.29
 Atheromatous + PAMAM + ZnPc 2.30 2.14 2.20 1.50
5 × 5 μm     
 Healthy 2.28 2.22 2.26 1.47
 Atheromatous 2.53 2.23 2.30 1.84
 Atheromatous + PAMAM 2.33 2.18 2.24 1.64
 Atheromatous + PAMAM + ZnPc 2.33 2.19 2.28 1.47
 Glass + PAMAM (0.025 M) 2.34 2.08 2.14 1.73
  1. PAMAM, polyamidoamine; ZnPc, zinc phthalocyanine.