Wear Resistance of Steels with Surface Nanocrystalline Structure Generated by Mechanical-Pulse Treatment
© The Author(s). 2017
Received: 3 January 2017
Accepted: 13 February 2017
Published: 27 February 2017
The influence of the surface mechanical-pulse treatment based on high-speed friction with a rapid cooling by the technological environment on the wear resistance of medium- and high-carbon steels was considered. The treatment due to a severe plastic deformation enabled obtaining the nanocrystalline structure with a grain size of 14–40 nm. A high positive effect of this treatment was obtained not only because of metal nanocrystallization but also thanks to other factors, namely, structural-phase transformations, carbon saturation of the surface due to decomposition of the coolant and the friction coefficient decrease. Higher carbon content leads to better strengthening of the surface, and its microhardness can reach 12 GPa.
KeywordsNanocrystalline structure Wear resistance Friction coefficient Surface layer Mechanical pulse treatment Surface alloying Carbon steel
Structural-metallurgical factors which form wear resistance of steels mainly consist in choosing chemical composition of a metal and its heat treatment. The different methods of surface treatment are widely used for this goal.
From the point of high wear resistance, a special attention has been paid to steels with nanocrystalline structure (NCS) which have a complex, unique mechanical properties [1–3]. Their main advantage consists in a possibility to combine high characteristics of strength, plasticity, and brittle fracture resistance. Hence, the studies of crack growth resistance in NCS materials [4, 5] and their stability in aggressive environments [6, 7] are of a great interest. However, the complexity of such properties can be considered as the factors for improvement of wear resistance of the material. Besides, surface NCS are characterized by lower friction coefficient  as compared with traditional microcrystalline structure.
One of the most widely used processes for NCS production is severe plastic deformation (SPD) which allows formation of both three-dimentional and surface NCS. In the latter case it includes, namely, vibrational balls cold-work hardening , sand-blasting, wire brush hardening, and ultrasonic impact treatment [10, 11]. One of the methods of creating the surface NCS is mechanical-pulse treatment (MPT) which results in the formation of so-called white layer [3, 5–7]. The physics of MPT consists in the heating of the surface layers of the treated metal during high-speed friction with a rotational cylindrical tool above the phase transformation temperatures (850–1500 °C), a simultaneous thermoplastic deformation, and a subsequent rapid cooling with a speed of 103–104 K/s due to heat transfer from surface layers into the coolant, strengthening tool, and the treated component. It should be noted that the coolant serves not only for rapid cooling during the MPT but also for saturation of surface layers by coolant elements because of its decomposition. MPT is based on the principles of grinding and can be realized on slightly modified lathes and grinding machines. MPT enables obtaining of the surface NCS with a grain size of 12–60 nm, and microhardness reaches 7–12 GPa.
The middle, high-carbon and alloyed steels after quenching and low-temperature annealing are widely used in the industry as high wear resistant materials. The aim of this work is (a) to investigate the wear resistance of some carbon steels with a different chemical composition with the surface NCS formed by MPT; (b) to compare the wear resistance of certain steels after different treatments, quenching with following low-temperature tempering and after MPT strengthening.
The studied steels were 35 (0.35C), 45 (0.45C), U8 (0.8C), 40Kh (0.4C-1Cr), and a ball-bearing steel ShKh15 (1C-0.3Si-0.3Mn-0.3Ni). All investigated steels were treated by MPT after normalizing and tempering. The steels 40Kh and ShKh15 were quenched and tempered at the temperature of 200 °C additionally to achieve the hardness 52–54 HRC (5.9–6.1 GPa) and 60-62 HRC (7.7–8.4 GPa), correspondingly.
MPT was carried out using the strengthening tool made of a titanium alloy VT6 (Ti-6Al-4V) with the following treatment regimes: a tool rotating at a velocity of 60 m/s, a treated specimen rotating at a velocity of 0.04 m/s, a longitudinal feed of the tool along the component axis of 0.8 mm/rev, and a depth of run that was equal to 0.35 mm (the value characterized a pressing force of the tool on the treated component). The special technological medium for carburizing  with additives of a low-molecular polyethylene as a carbon content diffusing substance was used as a coolant.
Phase analyses of the surface layers after MPT were carried out with the CuKα-radiation method (U = 30 kV, I = 20 mA) with a step of 0.05° and an exposition of 4 s. The diffractograms were post processed using the software Powder Cell. The X-ray pictures were analyzed using the JCPDS-ASTM index .
The same scheme was used to establish the friction coefficient in air and in oil without addition of quartz sand. The insert-specific pressure on the ring varied between 2.0 and 6.0 MPa.
Results and Discussion
It was established by the X-ray analysis that MPT generated ferrite-austenite steels (35, 45, 40Kh steels) and ferrite-cementite (U8, ShKh15 steels) structure. The grain size in the surface layers was 14–40 nm.
It should be noted that the MPT effect became more pronounced with increase of carbon content in the steels. In general, the influence of carbon amount on hardness of untreated metal layers in the depth of specimen is negligible. However, the surface layers of 200 μm thick after MPT of different steels have similar dependences of the microhardness from the depth of strengthening creating two zones: 1–3 curves for steels with carbon content in a range of 0.35–0.45% and curves 4–5 0.8–1.0% (Fig. 3).
Dependence of the friction coefficient in the pair steel 45 (specimen)–steel ShKh15 (counter body) in oil on the kind of treatment
Kind of treatment
Quenching and tempering
The positive effect of the rings MPT strengthening on the wear resistance of untreated inserts (Figs. 5b and 6b) could be explained by a decrease in the friction coefficient in the specimen—counter body friction pair. Hence, it confirms the importance of μ decreasing for wear resistance increase of the steels after MPT.
A rise of the wear resistance of the steel surface NCS could be expected in the case of the hydrogen saturation of the metal, which frequently happens in real service conditions. As it was showed before [6, 17], the NCS on steels obtained by MPT can weaken the hydrogen penetration in the metal and can increase the resistance of the hydrogen embrittlement. It leads to reduction of wear intensity, at least, by the chipping mechanism.
The influence of the surface mechanical-pulse treatment based on high-speed friction and cooling by technological medium on the wear resistance of the medium- and high-carbon steels is considered.
The grain sizes, determined by X-ray analysis, were in the range of 14–40 nm. The electron microscopy analysis confirmed these results and indicated strongly distorted grain boundaries and dislocation clews. These diffraction patterns are typical for a great disorientation of the grains.
The effect of the surface mechanical-pulse strengthening is a result of some factors: the surface nanostructurization, structural-phase transformations, carbon surface saturation from destructed technological medium during the treatment. The carbon content increment provides stronger effect of strengthening of the steel. The microhardness reaches 7-12 GPa for the steels with carbon content of 0.35–1%.
Mechanical-pulse treatment improves significantly the wear resistance of the steels in comparison with the quenching and low temperature tempering ones.
The significant decrease of friction coefficient as a result of the mechanical-pulse treatment of surface leads to an increase of the wear resistance of both strengthened specimen and unhardened counter body.
HN developed the plan of the study, carried out the general analysis of the results, and prepared the article. VK chose the regimes and carried out the strengthened treatment. OM carried out the test using physical methods of investigations. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Valiev RZ, Islamgaliev RK, Alexandrov IV (2000) Bulk nanostructured materials from severe plastic deformation. Progress Mater Sci 45:103View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kurzydlowski KJ (2006) Physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of nanostructured materials. Mater Sci 42(1):85–94View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nykyforchyn H, Kyryliv V, Maksymiv O (2014) Physical and mechanical properties of surface nanocrystalline structures, generated by severe thermal-plastic deformation. In: Fesenko O, Yatsenko L (eds) Nanocomposites, nanophotonics, nanobiotechnology, and applications. Springer, Inbunden, pp 31–41Google Scholar
- Brynk T, Pakiela Z, Kulczyk M, Kurzydlowski K (2013) Fatigue crack growth rate in ultrafine-grained Al 5483 and 7475 alloys processed by hydro-extrusion. Mech Mater 67:46–52View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kocanda D, Hutssaylyuk V, Slezak T, Torzewski J, Nykyforchyn H, Kyryliv V (2012) Fatigue crack growth rates of S235 and S355 steels after friction stir processing. Mater Sci Forum 726:203–210View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nykyforchyn H, Lunarska E, Kyryliv V, Maksymiv O. Influence of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of steels with the surface nanostructure. Nanoplasmonics, nano-optics, nanocomposites, and surface studies. Springer Proceedings in Physics; 2015. 167: p. 457–465Google Scholar
- Nykyforchyn H, Kyryliv V, Maksymiv O, Slobodian Z, Tsyrulnyk O (2016) Formation of surface corrosion-resistant nanocrystalline structure on steel. Nanoscale Res Lett 2016;11:1–6Google Scholar
- Wang ZB, Tao NR, Li S et al (2003) Effect of surface nanocrystallization on friction and wear properties in low carbon steel. Mater Sci Eng A352:144–149View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tao NR, Lu J, Lu K (2008) Surface nanocrystallization by surface mechanical attrition treatment. Mater Sci Forum 579:91–108View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Valiev RZ, Chmelik F, Bordeaux F, Kapelski G, Baudelet B (1992) The Hall–Petch relation in submicro-grained Al-1.5% Mg alloy. Scr Metall Mater 27(7):855–860View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tao NR, Sui ML, Lu J (1999) Surface nanocrystallization of iron induced by ultrasonic shot peening. Nanostruct Mater 433(11):8Google Scholar
- Kyryliv V (2006) Surface saturation of steel with carbon during mechanical-pulse treatment. Mater Sci 42(1):85–94View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kraus W, Nolze G (1996) Powder cell–a program for the representation and manipulation of crystal structures and calculation the resulting X-ray powder patterns. J Appl Cryst 29:301–303View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Samsonov GV, Kovtun VI, Bovkun GA (1973) Effect of pressure on the friction, wear, and surface properties of the transition metals. Powder Metall Met Ceram 12:337Google Scholar
- Buckleu DH (1981) Surface effects in adhesion, friction, wear, and lubrication. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Kyryliv VI (2012) Improvement of the wear resistance of medium-carbon steel by nanodispersion of surface layers. Mater Sci 48(1):119–123View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nykyforchyn HM, Lunarska E, Kyryliv VI, Maksymiv OV (2015) Hydrogen permeability of the surface nanocrystalline structures of carbon steel. Mater Sci 50(5):698–705View ArticleGoogle Scholar