High White Light Photosensitivity of SnSe Nanoplate-Graphene Nanocomposites
© The Author(s). 2017
Received: 12 January 2017
Accepted: 24 March 2017
Published: 7 April 2017
The multi-functional nanomaterial constructed with more than one type of materials has gained a great attention due to its promising application. Here, a high white light photodetector prototype established with two-dimensional material (2D) and 2D nanocomposites has been fabricated. The 2D-2D nanocomposites were synthesized with SnSe nanoplate and graphene. The device shows a linear I-V characterization behavior in the dark and the resistance dramatically decreases under the white light. Furthermore, the photosensitivity of the device is as large as 1110% with a rapid response time, which is much higher than pristine SnSe nanostructure reported. The results shown here may provide a valuable guidance to design and fabricate the photodetector based on the 2D-2D nanocomposites even beyond the SnSe nanoplate-graphene nanocomposites.
Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials, including graphene [1–3], BN , Be2Se3 , MoS2 , GaSe , SnSe , and SnSe2 , have attracted great attention due to their unique properties distinguished from the bulks in the past decades. However, the single function of the material has become the bottleneck for their further application. As a result, building blocks in nanocomposites constructed with two or even more components have provided a new strategy. In particular, the nanocomposites constructed with the graphene have become a great interest. These nanocomposites not only preserve the favorable properties of graphene and the other components but also greatly enhance the intrinsic properties due to the synergetic effect between them. At present, three types of the composites based on graphene have been constructed: (i) 0D-2D nanocomposites, for example, ZnO NP-RGO , CdSe NP-RGO , PbS QD-graphene , and GeSi QD-graphene ; (ii) 1D-2D nanocomposites, for example, PbSe nanorod-graphene  and ZnO nanorod-graphene ; (iii) 2D-2D nanocomposites, for example, GaSe nanosheet-graphene , few-layer InSe-graphene , and CdSe nanosheet-graphene . Among them, due to the larger interface region from the face-to-face contact comparing to the point-to-face contact in the 0D-2D nanocomposites and the line-to-face contact in the 1D-2D nanocomposites, the 2D-2D nanocomposites are suggested to be the most promising materials in photodetector, photocatalysis, energy storage and conversion, sensor, and so on.
In this report, the 2D-2D nanocomposites namely SnSe nanoplate-graphene nanocomposites were synthesized. As an important p-type semiconductor, SnSe has attracted intense attention in solar cells, photodetectors, and near-infrared optoelectronic devices due to its narrow band gap (~0.90 eV indirect and ~1.30 eV direct), earth-abundance, less toxicity, and chemical stability [18–20]. Then, a white light detector prototype based on the as-synthesized products was constructed after a series of characterization by XRD, SEM, and Raman. The device shows a linear I-V characterization behavior in the dark, and the resistance dramatically decreases under the white light. The photosensitivity of the device is as large as 1110% with a rapid response time. The results shown here may provide a valuable instruction to design and fabricate photodetectors based on graphene and even extend to other 2D-2D nanocomposites.
All chemical materials were of analytical grade and used as received without further purification. Tin (II) chloride dihydrate (SnCl2·2H2O; ≥98%), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP; 99.0%), and benzyl alcohol (≥98%) were purchased from Tianjing Fuchen Chemical Reagents Factory. Selenium dioxide (SeO2; 99.9%) were obtained from Chengdu Ai Keda Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. Graphite oxide (GO) was prepared through Hummers method . Some common organic solvents (ethanol and so on) were of analytical grade and obtained from Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd.
Synthesis of the SnSe Nanoplate-Graphene Nanocomposites
In a typical synthesis of the SnSe nanoplate-graphene nanocomposite, SeO2 (0.8 mmol/L), SnCl2·2H2O (0.8 mmol/L) and poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP; 0.32 g/mL), GO (0.075 g/mL) is added into benzyl alcohol (20 mL) at room temperature. The mixed solution was transferred into a three-neck round-bottom flask, sealed, and then degassed with pure N2 (99.99%) under magnetic stirring. Then the mixture was heated up to 200 °C and allowed to be aged for another 12 h at this temperature in N2 atmosphere. Finally, the solution was cooled down to room temperature naturally, and the products were obtained by centrifugation at 10,000 rpm for 10 min to purify at least twice by re-suspending them into absolute alcohol. The products could then be well re-suspended in ethanol for further characterization.
The powder X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) is characterized by PANalytical X’Pert ProMPD (Cu Kα, λ = 0.15418 nm). The UV-Vis-NIR was characterized by the Perkin Elmer Lambda 950. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was characterized by Hitachi SU-8010. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) attached with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) was characterized by JEOL ARM-200F. The Raman spectroscopy was recorded at room temperature using HORIBA Jobin Yvon Evolution with laser excitation at 532 nm with power less than 5 mW. The interdigital gold electrode (the separation between them was 5 μm) on the SiO2 substrate was fabricated by photolithography with lift-off technology. The electronic property was measured by Keithley 4200 semiconductor characterization systems. The SAN-EI ELECTRIC XES-40S1 Solar Simulator (100 mW/cm2) was used as the white light source.
Results and Discussion
Morphology and Raman Spectroscopy
Photo-Electronic Property of the Device
The 2D-2D nanocomposites namely SnSe nanoplate-graphene nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized and investigated. The photodetector device prototype of the as-synthesized products was fabricated and characterized carefully. The device shows a linear behavior in the dark and the resistance decreases sharply under the white light. Furthermore, the photosensitivity of the device is much larger than one order of magnitude with reversible and stable under a rapid response time, which is much better than previous reported. The high performance of the device may originate from the larger interface region from the face-to-face contact and special energy band of SnSe nanoplates and graphene. The results may hopefully be guidance to design and fabricate the photodetector based on the 2D-2D nanocomposites even beyond the SnSe nanoplate-graphene nanocomposites.
This work was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (No.11374052), the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province of China (2012J01256, 2013J01174, 2017J05003), Education Department of Fujian Province (JA15140) and the Science and Technology Project from Education Department of Fujian Province of China (JB13023).
The idea of the study was conceived by JL, ZH, and FL; QH, MG, YQ do the experiments; KZ, LL, and YX carried out the optical microscopy, SEM, TEM and Raman spectroscopy. JL, ZH, FL, and LL interpreted the experiments and wrote this manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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