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Fig. 3 | Nanoscale Research Letters

Fig. 3

From: A Review on the Electrochemically Self-organized Titania Nanotube Arrays: Synthesis, Modifications, and Biomedical Applications

Fig. 3

SEM images of anodized TiO2 nanotube layers by different anodization processes of Ti. a The highly ordered TiO2 nanotubes (in top and side view) are obtained in organic electrolyte systems, with self-ordered surface dimples (right) which in fact are metallic surfaces when the tube layers are removed. Reproduced from ref. [1]. b The disordered TiO2 nanotubes are grown in patches on the surface area and fused together to bundles in chloride containing electrolyte by an ultrafast anodization technique known as rapid-breakdown anodization (RBA). Reproduced from ref. [1] and [37]

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