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Fig. 9 | Nanoscale Research Letters

Fig. 9

From: A Review on the Electrochemically Self-organized Titania Nanotube Arrays: Synthesis, Modifications, and Biomedical Applications

Fig. 9

Evolution of titania nanotube arrays at different calcination temperatures. The electrolyte was ethylene glycol containing 0.3 wt% ammonium fluoride and 5 vol% distilled water. a The decrease in the thickness of titania nanotube arrays at different annealing temperature from 300 to 600 °C. The insets are corresponding SEM images and the scale bar is 5 μm. b The schematic of crystallization process of anodic titania nanotubes annealed at (1) 450 °C, (2) 500 °C, and (3) 600 °C in air. Reproduced from ref. [104]

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