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Table 1 TiO2 nanotubes arrays fabricated through anodic oxidation in the three generations: electrolyte compositions, anodization conditions, and size of the resulting nanotubes

From: A Review on the Electrochemically Self-organized Titania Nanotube Arrays: Synthesis, Modifications, and Biomedical Applications

Generation Electrolyte Condition Diameter Thickness of layers Ref
First generation 0.5 wt% HF in aqueous solution 20 V 20 min 60 nm 250 nm [54]
second generation 0.1MKF+1MH2SO4+0.2Mcitric acid 25 V
20 h
115 nm
(inner)
4.4 μm [57]
1MNa2SO4+0.5wt%NaF 20 V
6 h
100 nm 2.4 μm [58]
Third generation 0.5 wt% NH4F 20 V 40 nm 7 μm [59]
In glycerol 13 h
0.3 wt% NH4F 60 V 100 nm 45 μm [63]
In ethylene glycol 18 h
0.25 wt% NH4F 60 V 160 nm 134 μm [60]
In ethylene glycol 17 h