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Table 2 The amount of ROS generated [23, 29, 33,34,35, 49,50,51,52,53,54,55] from by a TPE (211.2 nJ pixel−1, 800 scans; Ex, 760 nm) to water-soluble fullerenol-treated E coli. (3 or 6 μg mL−1) was conducted in the dark and monitored. Data are means ± SD (n = 6)

From: Water-Soluble Fullerenol with Hydroxyl Group Dependence for Efficient Two-Photon Excited Photodynamic Inactivation of Infectious Microbes

 1O2 (by SOSG)c
Negative controlacROS neutralizationabcPositive controlcdC60(OH)46ROS neutralizationbcC60(OH)21ROS neutralizationbc
3 μg mL−133 ± 12234 ± 122835 ± 1352581 ± 115233 ± 112235 ± 104234 ± 10
6 μg mL−1232 ± 11233 ± 102841 ± 1482626 ± 118232 ± 132276 ± 109232 ± 12
 1O2 (by t-MVP)e
Negative controlaeROS neutralizationabePositive controldeC60(OH)46ROS neutralizationbeC60(OH)21ROS neutralizationbe
3 μg mL−1340 ± 21341 ± 229301 ± 2288865 ± 199340 ± 208547 ± 165341 ± 21
6 μg mL−1341 ± 20339 ± 239316 ± 2318942 ± 208339 ± 188619 ± 172340 ± 19
 O2˙ (by XTT)f
Negative controlafROS neutralizationabfPositive controldfC60(OH)46ROS neutralizationbfC60(OH)21ROS neutralizationbf
3 μg mL−1001.95 ± 0.151.86 ± 0.100.03 ± 0.011.77 ± 0.080.02 ± 0.01
6 μg mL−1001.99 ± 0.171.90 ± 0.110.03 ± 0.021.81 ± 0.080.02 ± 0.02
 O2˙ (by GSH)g
Negative controlagROS neutralizationabgPositive controldgC60(OH)46ROS neutralizationbgC60(OH)21ROS neutralizationbg
3 μg mL−10098.9 ± 4.3%84.6 ± 3.4%0.3 ± 0.1%76.7 ± 3.2%0.2 ± 0.1%
6 μg mL−10099.4 ± 4.7%88.2 ± 3.7%0.2 ± 0.1%80.4 ± 3.6%0.1 ± 0.1%
  1. aNegative control: only treat reagent and laser radiation without material (0 μg mL−1)
  2. bROS neutralization: with the treatments of nanomaterial, the laser irradiation and 30 ppm of antioxidant α-Tocopherol/methyl linoleate
  3. cSOSG reagent (Ex/Em, 488/525 nm) has a specific reactivity to generate fluorescence recorded by a PL spectrometer
  4. dPositive control: the treatment of 50 μM tert-butyl hydroperoxide and laser irradiation
  5. et-MVP (Ex/Em, 352/465 nm) can react with 1O2, forming a dioxetane intermediate that generates fluorescence upon decomposition to 1-pyrenecarboxaldehyde, and monitored by a PL spectrometer
  6. fXTT would interact with O2. and produce the XTT-formazan generating strong absorption (470 nm in wavelength)
  7. gGSH containing a thiol-tripeptide can prevent damages to cellular or bacterial components caused by stress of oxidation. Thiol group from GSH can be oxidized to disulfide bond converting GSH to glutathione disulfide. GSH oxidation was used to determine the generated O2.. Loss of GSH (%) = (absorbance difference between sample and negative control/absorbance of negative control) × 100%