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Table 1 NPs played their biologic role by inducing ROS burst in cells

From: Reactive Oxygen Species-Related Nanoparticle Toxicity in the Biomedical Field

No. Type of NPs Potential applications ROS Dose Molecule mechanism of biotoxicity References
1 Nano-C60 Antibacterial agents, Anticancer agents. 1 μg/mL Necrosis, apoptosis, autophagy, DNA fragmentation, cell membrane damage. [26,27,28]
2 Carbon-based nanodots Antibacterial agents. > 1 mg/mL Oxidize the phospholipids, destroy the membranes. [29]
3 Ag Antibacterial agents. 150 μg/mL Intracellular oxidation, membrane potential variation, membrane permeability disruption, DNA damage, genomic instability, cell cycle arrest, cellular contents release, inactivate proteins, autophagy, disturb electron transfer process. [30,31,32,33,34,35,36]
4 Gold-silver nanocage Antibacterial agents. 2.5 μg/mL Destruction of cell membrane, apoptosis. [37]
5 ZnO Wastewater purification, antibacterial agents, antitumor agents, fillers in orthopedic, and dental implants. 20 μg/mL Disintegration the cell membrane, inhibition enzyme activity, inhibition DNA synthesis, DNA damage, interruption of energy transduction, mitochondrial damage, apoptosis, intracellular outflow, mitotic arrest, carcinogenic. [38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45]
6 Gold Anticancer agents, antibacterial agents. 20 μM Collapse membrane potential, inhibit ATPase activities, inhibit the subunit of ribosome. [46, 47]
7 MgO Antibacterial agents, anticancer agents. 100 mg/mL Lipid peroxidation, apoptosis. [48, 49]
8 Fe3O4 Antibacterial agents. 32 μg/mL DNA cleavage. [50]
9 CdSe Antibacterial agents.   Inhibition proliferation. [51]
10 TiO2 Antimicrobial agents, air and water purification, dental prosthesis. 10 μg/mL Loss respiratory activity, interfere oxidative phosphorylation, DNA lesions, mitochondrial dysfunction, carcinogenicity. [52,53,54,55,56,57]
11 Al2O3 Antibacterial agents, cross-linker. 0.16 mg/L DNA damage, mutagenesis. [58, 59]
12 VO2 Antimicrobial agents. 2.5 μg/mL Mitochondrial dysfunction apoptosis. [60, 61]
13 V2O5 Antimicrobial agents. 20 mg/L Interruption mitochondrial function. [62, 63]
14 PCAE Antimicrobial agents. 30 μg/mL Membrane damages. [64]
15 Co-ZnO Antimicrobial agents. 20 μg/mL Low toxicity. [65]
16 Hybrid Gold/Polymer Antimicrobial agents. Unknown Unknown No cytotoxicity. [66]
17 Ag-Fe NPs Antimicrobial agents. 100 mg/L LDH release, disruption membrane integrity. [67]
18 Phycocyanin-ZnO nanorod Protect cell. 50 μg/mL Decrease in ROS production. [68]
19 Ag/lyz-Mt Antimicrobial agents, water disinfection. 160 μg/mL Damage cell membrane. [69]
20 PEGylated ZnO Antimicrobial agents, biological labeling. 45 ppm Low cytotoxicity. [70]
21 CdS NPs Antimicrobial agents. 4 μg/mL Inhibition proper cell septum formation, change morphology, fragment nuclei. [71]
22 CdTe Antimicrobial agents. 0.4 mg/L Morphological damages, apoptosis, genotoxicity. [72]
23 ZnO@APTMS/Cu QDs Antibacterial agents. 1.4 × 10-4 M Inhibition proliferation. [73]
24 CuO Antimicrobial agents. 5 mg/L Increase cell permeability, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, morphological alterations, mitochondrial dysfunction, interruption ATP synthesis. [74,75,76]
25 Mn3O4 Antioxidant. 20 ng/μL Protect biomolecules against ROS. [77]
26 PEGylated nanoceria Antioxidant. 10 μM Cell protection, radical scavenger. [78]
27 CeO2 Against oxidative damage. 2.5 μg/mL Suppressed ROS production, protect cells, and tissues. [79]
28 AuNPs-rGO-NC Anticancer agents, antimicrobial agents. 50 μg/mL Reduction cell activity, [80]
29 CONPs Anticancer agents. 10 μM DNA damage. [81]
30 Graphene Cancer theotherapy, bioimaging, biosensing. 25 μg/mL DNA damage, mutagenesis. [82, 83]
31 Fe2O3 Antibacterial agents. 80 μg/mL DNA damage. [84]
32 NiO Antibacterial agents. 10 mg/L DNA damage. [85, 86]
33 PtAuNRs Anticancer agents. OD at 0.5 Induce hyperthermia. [87]
34 SWCNTs Clinical diagnostic agent, bioengineered research. 50 μg/cm2 DNA damage. [88]
35 bsCdS Anticancer agents. 15 μg/mL Apoptosis, depletion ATP, DNA damage. [89]
36 Ag@OTV Against H1N1 infection. Unknown Less cytotoxicity. [90]
37 PATA3-C4@CuS Antibacterial agents. 5.5 μg/mL Less cytotoxicity. [91]