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Table 1 Chemical synthetic methods and properties of carbon dots

From: Advances and Challenges of Fluorescent Nanomaterials for Synthesis and Biomedical Applications

Methods Doped elements Size PL color QY (%) Ref
Electrochemical synthesis - 1.5–4 nm Blue/yellow 1.2 (blue CNCs) [22]
Electrochemical synthesis - 3–5 nm Green - [23]
Combustion/acidic oxidation -  < 2 nm Violet/red/yellow  < 2 [24]
Combustion/acidic oxidation - 3–4 nm Yellow  ~ 3–6 [25]
Microwave/ultrasonic treatment - 3–5 nm Blue 5.18 [33]
Microwave/ultrasonic treatment N, S 2.92 nm-4.48 nm   57 [38]
Microwave/ultrasonic treatment - 1.65 nm - 7–11 [28]
Microwave/ultrasonic treatment N, S 8 nm Blue 22 [36]
Hydrothermal carbonization O, N, P 1–6 nm Bright and color-tunable 14.5 [40]
Hydrothermal carbonization - 4–7 nm Blue 7.8 [26]
Hydrothermal carbonization N 2.70 nm Blue 23.48 [42]
Microwave-hydrothermal carbonization N, O - Blue 45.9 [43]
Solution chemistry methods - Tunable - - [30]
Supported synthesis - 1.5–2.5 nm Blue 23 [31]
Solution chemistry methods - 7.2 nm Yellow 24 [41]